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Labor Market Integration


Borders do not separate labor markets as completely as many believe.  Understanding how labor markets are integrated is critical for policies that affect migration, capital flows, and trade. My work evaluates labor market integration in North America and around the world with the goal of helping policy makers maximize efficiency, growth, and equal opportunities for workers.

Journal Articles

Robertson, Raymond; Halliday, Timothy J; Vasireddy, Sindhu. (2020) “Labour market adjustment to third‐party competition: Evidence from Mexico.” The World Economy 43(7): 1977-2006.

Robertson, Raymond; Lopez Acevedo, Gladys; Savchenko, Yevgeniya (2019) “Globalisation and the Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from Sri Lanka and Cambodia” Journal of Development Studies, forthcoming.


Halliday, Timothy; Lederman, Daniel; Robertson, Raymond (2018) “Tracking Wage Inequality Trends with Prices and Different Trade Models: Evidence from Mexico” Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv) 154(1): 47-73.\


Lederman, Daniel; Raymond Robertson (2018) “Economic Integration across Latin America: Evidence from Labour Markets, 1990-2013” The World Economy,


Gandolfi, Davide; Halliday, Timothy; Robertson, Raymond (2017) “Trade, FDI, Migration, and The Place Premium: Mexico and the United States” Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv) 153(1): 1-37.

Robertson, Raymond (2000) “Wage Shocks and North American Labor Market Integration” American Economic Review, September, 90(4): 742-64.


Artuc, Erhan; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Robertson, Raymond; Samaan, Daniel (2019) Exports to Jobs: Boosting the Gains from Trade in South Asia (South Asia Development Forum), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank (ISBN-13 978-1464812484)


Bown, Chad P.; Lederman, Daniel; Pienknagura, Samuel; and Robertson, Raymond (2017) Better Neighbors: Toward a Renewal of Economic Integration in Latin America, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank (doi: 978-1-4648-0977-4)

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